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Encyclopaedia of Gods and Goddesses [Vol. 1-30)

Edited by Nagendra Kumar Singh, Anmol, 2000, v, 4443 p, 30 Vols, ISBN : 8126104139, $1,900.00 (Includes free airmail shipping)

Encyclopaedia of Gods and Goddesses/edited by Nagendra Kumar Singh

Contents: Vol. 1. Visnu and Vaisnavism: Preface. Introduction. 1. The absorption of non-Vedic Vaisnavism into the fold of Smarta religion in Eastern India. 2. Agamas and South Indian Vaisnavism. 3. Agamas and the way of life. 4. Alvars. 5. Anantasayana Vishnu: earliest epigraphic evidence. 6. Antal: portrait of a 12th century Vaisnava women. 7. Asthamukha Gandabherunda Narsimha. 8. The astronomical symbolism of Vishnu from the Vedas of the Puranas. 9. Avataras of Vishnu: a clue to our history. 10. Baladeva. 11. The Bauls of Bengal. 12. Bezbaroa's writings of Vaishnava philosophy. 13. The bhakti theories and Chaitanya's Gaudiya Vaisnava School. 14. Blissful God and yearning man. 15. Brahmanic antecedents to the Visnu incarnation. 16. The Brahmavaivarta Purana and Vaisnavism in Eastern India. 17. The cosmic serpent: Sesa. 18. The cult of Radha-Madhava in Eastern India. 19. Cultural contribution of the Samhati: art and music. 20. Dashavataras in Bengal sculptures. 21. Devotional practices.

Vol. 2. Visnu and Vaisnavism: Preface. 1. Dhvajastambhas of Visnu. 2. Evolution of Vishnu in the Vedic age (1500-600 B.C.). 3. Evolution of Vaisnava thought. 4. Hayagriva in the Vaikuntha pantheon of Khajuraho. 5. The iconic forms of Visnu images in Gujarat. 6. An image of Govardhanadhara Krishna from Simhachalam, Andhra Pradesh. 7. Images of Visnu. 8. Images of Visnu preserved in art gallery at Thanjavur, Tamilnadu. 9. The impact of Ramanuja Sampradaya on the Gujarat society. 10. The importance of the Androgynous form of Visnu. 11. The incarnatic nature of Visnu: Vedic antecedent. 12. Iconography of Visnu in Maharashtra (from earliest times to 10th cent. A.D.). 13. Jiva. 14. Kha: description of the manuscripts. 15. Krsna in medieval art: a study in Eastern Ganga Temples of Andhra Pradesh. 16. Laksmi-Narasimha in the sculptural art of Hampi (Vijayanagar). 17. The life of Bahinabai: 17th century Vaisnava devotee.

Vol. 3. Visnu and Vaisnavism: Preface. 1. Life and philosophy of Lakshminath Bezbaroa. 2. The mystical texts of the Gaudiya Vaisnava tradition. 3. Narasimha images of the Simhachalam Temple. 4. The Narasimhavatara: mythical analysis. 5. Neo-Vaisnavite movement in Assam. 6. The ninth incarnation of Visnu. 7. Nitya Kalyanaswami Temple: Thiruvidandai. 8. Nityananda: the date and personal history of the poet. 9. Origin and development of the Satra institution in Assam. 10. Origin and development of Vaisnavism. 11. The philosophy of art in Bengal Vaisnavism. 12. Radhamohana. 13. Ramanuja: his life and philosophy. 14. Ramanuja and Sri Vaisnavism: some observations on its social content. 15. Relation of Visnu with other Gods. 16. Religious ceremonies in Assam.

Vol. 4. Visnu and Vaisnavism: Preface. 1. The sacred stories of the Vaisnava of Southern India: desire of Antal. 2. The Sahajiya Sampradaya. 3. Salagrama: origin and development. 4. Sankara and the Vaisnava Acharyas. 5. Sankaradeva and the Vaisnava movement in Assam. 6. The Saptadvipa cosmology. 7. The Sattra institution: cultural contribution. 8. Sheshasayi in early medieval literature and art. 9. Some Visnu sculptures of the early Kadamba and of Madhava Visvarupa forms of the medieval periods. 10. South Indian Vaisnavism. 11. The Srikrsnalilamrtam: religio-philosophical studies. 12. Tattvasandarbha: preliminary remarks. 13. Ten prominent incarnation of Lord Visnu.

Vol. 5. Visnu and Vaisnavism: Preface. 1. Trivikrama in the inconographic treatment of the later medieval art in South India. 2. The twenty-four incarnations of Visnu. 3. Unique architectural patterns of Asthanga Vimanas. 4. Vaisnava Acarya in South India: Nathamuni to Ramanuja. 5. Vaisnava literature in Assam. 6. Vaisnava lyrics of Bengal. 7. Vaisnava sacred centres and temples. 8. Vaisnava sites in South Bihar. 9. Vaisnava themes in the mural art of Kerala. 10. The Vaisnava writers of the medieval Orissa. 11. Vaisnavism in Assam. 12. Vaisnavism and Christianity. 13. Vaisnavism in Karnataka through the ages. 14. The Vaisnavism in modern life of Bengal. 15. Vaisnavism in the Narada-Pancaratra. 16. Vaisnavism in North India.

Vol. 6. Visnu and Vaisnavism: Preface. 1. Vaisnavism in Orissa under Kapilendra Deva and Purusottama. 2. Vaisnavism in the Padma Purana. 3. Vaisnavism: a philosophical perspective. 4. Vaisnavism in the Puranas. 5. Vaisnavism in Sarala Mahabharata. 6. Vaisnavism in South Kosala. 7. The Vaisnavites of Assam. 8. Shri Vallabhacharya: his life and philosophy. 9. The Vamanavatara: mythical analysis. 10. Varaha motif on coins. 11. A Vijayanagara Vaisnavite Temple at Gandikota. 12. Visnu in Ayurveda. 13. Visnu in the celestial phenomena.

Vol. 7. Visnu and Vaisnavism: Preface. 1. Visnu in the Compositions of Tyagaraja. 2. Visnu in the early epigraphical records. 3. Visnu's cult. 4. Visnu in the early inscriptions of Assam. 5. Sri Visnu in Hindu classic. 6. Visnu on Ganjifa cards. 7. Visnu's incarnation in the Bhagavata Purana. 8. Visnu-Krsna in Nammalvar's Tiruvaymoli (C. 7-8th Cent. A.D.). 9. Visnu and his multiple character. 10. Visnu in music. 11. Visnu's name Aniruddha. 12. Visnu (Phra Naraj) in Thailand.

Vol. 8. Visnu and Vaisnavism: Preface. 1. Sri Visnu in the regional literature. 2. Visnu representation in Upper Pennar Valley. 3. Visnu in the sculptural art of Pushpagiri. 4. Visnu and Siva in folk literature. 5. Visnu and Rudra-Siva in the Veda and the Mahabharata. 6. Visnu in Telugu literature. 7. Visnu Temples in India. 8. Visnu in South Indian coinage. 9. Visnu theme in Indian miniature painting. 10. Sri Visnu in Vedic literature. 11. Visnu as a Vedic seer. 12. Visnu's worship in Assam. 13. Women saints in Gaudiya Vaisnavism. 14. Worship of Visnu: known from Orissan inscriptions.

Vol. 9. Brahma: Preface. 1. Accord of Upasana and fruits in the case of Brahma, his consort and other Devas. 2. Aksara Brahman: the Adhyatma aspect of Brahman. 3. Art and architecture. 4. Attributes of Brahma. 5. Beyond Brahman. 6. Bhutabhimani. 7. Birth of Brahma. 8. Boons and curses. 9. Brahma in Advaita philosophy. 10. Brahma: the architect of the universe. 11. Brahma in Brahmasutra.

Vol. 10. Brahma: Preface. 1. Brahma in Indian literature. 2. Brahma: the sole author of cosmic dispensations. 3. Brahma, Siva and Visnu. 4. Brahman: absolutely without origination. 5. Brahman is attained by Jiva. 6. Brahman: the bestower of fruits of all karmas. 7. Brahman to be contemplated as one's ruler. 8. Brahman's identity with soul. 9. Brahman or matter sufferer. 10. Brahman to be meditated upon by combining all excellences and absence of imperfections. 11. Brahman: neither unknowable nor inexpressible. 12. Brahman: relation of other deities. 13. The Brahman as soul. 14. Brahman as supreme person. 15. Brahman and the universe. 16. Commentary on the nature of Brahma.

Vol. 11. Brahma: Preface. 1. Concept of Brahmatvam: supreme and universal transcendence. 2. The conception of pantheism. 3. Cosmic principle of Brahma. 4. The cult of Brahma. 5. Deities of speech merge in those of the mind. 6. The doctrine of Brahman and Sunyata. 7. The doctrine of Nirguna Brahman. 8. The doctrine of the universe. 9. Deities of mind and soul. 10. Elements of which physical body is composed. 11. Epigraphical records of Brahma. 12. Esoteric theology. 13. Essence of Brahman in Upanisad. 14. Existence of God: dependent or independent. 15. The facet of Brahma. 16. God's objectivity and the soul's subjectivity.

Vol. 12. Brahma: Preface. 1. Hiranyagarbha in Brahman. 2. Iconography of Brahma. 3. Investigation of Brahman as distinct from the Jivatman. 4. An Iota of Brahmans. 5. Jiva: different form of Brahma. 6. Jiva and Jagat. 7. Jiva rests in Susupti in Brahman present in Susumnanadi. 8. Jivas return with residual karma. 9. Jivatma: genesis of Brahma. 10. Jiva wakes from Susupti only Thro' Brahman's impulsion. 11. The knowledge of Brahman. 12. The legends of Brahma. 13. Madhva's conception of Brahman. 14. The male and the female principle in world-creation.

Vol. 13. Brahma: Preface. 1. Maya and the discourse. 2. Metaphysical categories. 3. Microcosm of the body and its organs are also fashioned by the Supreme Brahman. 4. Motive and cause of creation. 5. Mystical tradition of Brahma. 6. Myth of Brahma in Upanisad. 7. The nature of the deity. 8. Negatives and negations. 9. The non-existent of Brahma. 10. Origin of Brahma. 11. Origin of the concept of Brahma. 12. The origin of universe: Puranic cosmology. 13. Para-Brahman. 14. Polemical review of Vyasatirtha. 15. The popular Prajapati.

Vol. 14. Brahma: Preface. 1. Post-Samhita period: conceptual development of Brahma. 2. Pratikas of Brahma. 3. Puranic concept of Brahma. 4. The Puranic episode, colour and vehicle of Brahma.

Vol. 15. Brahma: Preface. 1. Ramanuja's concept of Brahman. 2. Religious aspect of Brahma. 3. The source of all cosmic life. 4. Source of energy. 5. Spouse of Brahma. 6. States of all Jivas depend on Brahman. 7. Status of Brahma in Purana. 8. The supreme creator: Ramanuja's interpretation. 9. Supreme reality: Vedic approach. 10. The Supreme unmanifest of Brahma. 11. Symbolism of Brahma in Upanisad. 12. The transcendence of Brahman: Vedantic approach. 13. Transempirical character of Brahman. 14. Transempirical form of Brahman. 15. Transempirical meditation. 16. The ultimate cause of cosmic evolution. 17. Unmanifest nature of Brahma. 18. The Upanisadic aspect of Brahma. 19. Vision of Brahma. 20. Visioning Bimba-form the Sine Qua Non of Aparoksa.

Vol. 16. Siva: Preface. Introduction. 1. Abhinavagupta’s aesthetics. 2. Abhinavagupta’s contribution to Saivism. 3. Advaita Saivism of Nandikesvara. 4. Advent of Uma-Mahesvara cult: age of the Sailodbhavas. 5. The aids to faith: the Astavaranas. 6. Aghorasiva, exposition of Bhoja, the illumination of the categories. 7. The Aiyappan cult: the meeting ground of Hindu militancy, egalitarianism and universalism. 8. Amareshvara cave. 9. Amaresvara Lingam. 10. Appar: Saivite saint. 11. Arputat-Tiruvantati: [Devotional poem by Karaikkal—Ammaiyar]. 12. Art in the cult of Siva: danger, deformity and death. 13. Astika and Janamejaya. 14. Avadayakkal. 15. Badrinath: a study in Himalayan pilgrimage. 16. The Basava Purana: the Virasaivas. 17. Beginning of the Harihara cult: epoch of the early Gangas.

Vol. 17. Siva: Preface. 1. Bhairava. 2. Bhairava: the terrible and other forms of Siva. 3. Bhakti in the Bhakti Sutras. 4. Bhakti in the early Tirumurai. 5. The birth of Rudra. 6. The Bodhisattva Vajrapani’s subjugation of Siva. 7. Bondage and liberation. 8. Campantar. 9. The Cidambaram myth. 10. Commentaries and translation of Siddhanta Astakam. 11. The concept of energies: neoplatonist and hesychas parallels. 12. Concept of God. 13. Conception of God in Saiva Siddhantin. 14. The conception of God in Virasaivism. 15. The cult of Ardhanarisvara. 16. The cult of Khandoba. 17. Cults and practices: epigraphic evidence.

Vol. 18. Siva: Preface. 1. Cults and practices of Saivism: literary evidence. 2. Cuntarar. 3. A curious composite figure of Visnu and Siva. 4. The Daksinatantras. 5. Darasuram: Airavatisvara temple. 6. Deliverance of Lord Siva. 7. Demon brothers. 8. Development of Saivism in post-Vedic era. 9. Development of Saivism in South India. 10. Devotional Hinduism: Kali and Shiva. 11. The divine body and the sacred circle of the senses. 12. Doctrine of the Trika. 13. Economic life of the Virasaiva woman. 14. Emergence of Kashmiri Saivism. 15. Entrance into the supreme reality.

Vol. 19. Siva: Preface. 1. Epistemology of Saiva Siddhanta. 2. The eternal entities. 3. The evolution of Bhairava cult: age of the Bhanjas. 4. Evolution of the cosmic body of Siva. 5. Existential dimension of divine grace. 6. The family of Siva. 7. The founding marriage: the Goddess weds Siva in the text. 8. The fundamentals of Saiva Siddhanta. 9. The general typology of religious associations and its cross-cultural applicability. 10. The Gita’s teaching on Bhakti. 11. Gorakhnath philosophy of Siva and Sakti in eternal union. 12. The grotesque aspects and Ganas of Siva. 13. The hall of consciousness, the heart of the universe.

Vol. 20. Siva: Preface. 1. The Harihara sub-sect. 2. Historiography of Saivism. 3. The image of Siva. 4. Image of woman in Virasaivism. 5. Impact of Siva cult on social life in Orissa. 6. Interpretation of the dance of Siva: an aesthetic expression of Saiva Siddhanta philosophy. 7. Intruders into the pantheon: Siva and Dionysos. 8. The Irupavirupatu. 9. The Isvara-Gita and Bhakti. 10. Isvarapratyabhijna of Utpaladeva. 11. The Kapalikas and other Tantra. 12. The Kulagama Tantra. 13. Lakulisa Pasupata and the Veda. 14. The life of Basavesvara. 15. Life-sketch: Punitavatiyar. 16. Light and awareness: the two aspects of consciousness. 17. The Linga.

Vol. 21. Siva: Preface. 1. Lingadharanachandrika’s author and his work. 2. The Lingaraja temple: date. 3. The Lingayats or the Vira-Saivas. 4. Lingodbhavamurti in North Indian art. 5. Literature and scriptures of Lingayat religion. 6. The lord of sleep: Siva. 7. Love and grace. 8. Man and the discipline (Sadhana). 9. Manifestations and realizations of Rudra. 10. Manikkavacakar. 11. Manikkavasagar: Saivite saint. 12. Man in Saivism: definition and concept. 13. The marriage of Siva. 14. Marttanda-Bhairava: the composite form of Siva and Surya. 15. Maternal love. 16. Meykandar (Pre-Umapati) literature. 17. Mysticism of Saiva Siddhanta.

Vol. 22. Siva: Preface. 1. Myths of Dionysus and Siva. 2. Myths of Siva: a symbol of terror. 3. Nayanmar saints and their compositions. 4. Neo-Saivism of Acharya Amrtavagbhava. 5. Obeisance of Lord Siva. 6. Objects of veneration associated with Siva. 7. Origin and development of Siva cult in Orissa. 8. The origin of Linga worship. 9. The origin of Rudra Siva. 10. Origin of Saivism. 11. The origin of three Saiva Mathas in Tanjavur district. 12. The origin of Virasaivism. 13. Oriya Saivism. 14. O, that Linga! 15. Padmanabhapuram: Neelakantaswamy Temple.

Vol. 23. Siva: Preface. 1. A Panchayatana Siva Linga at Patna. 2. Paradvaita, the absolute non-dualism. 3. Paramashiva: the ultimate reality. 4. The Pasupatinath: a brief observation. 5. Pasupatas and Lakulisa. 6. Pasupatism: an obscure religious cult. 7. Pattisvaram: Dhenupurisvara temple. 8. The philosophical background. 9. Pilgrimage and poetry in Tamil Saivite hagiography. 10. Pillayarpatti: Karpaga Vinayaka Temple. 11. The Pitha system of classification. 12. Place of Njaanamrtam in Saiva Siddhanta philosophy. 13. Poetic beauty. 14. Post-Ikshvaku Saiva temple in Andhradesa. 15. Pratyabhijna. 16. Pre-Vaisnava Saivism. 17. The primordiality of Siva: some new linguistic evidence. 18. Progress of the Saiva Siddhanta system: Saivism in South Kosala. 19. Psychology of Karaikkal Ammaiyar’s devotion.

Vol. 24. Siva: Preface. 1. Rudra as an embodiment of divine ambivalence in the Satrudriya Stotram. 2. Rudra and Rudra-Siva. 3. The Rudra of the Vedas. 4. Saint Raamalingar: a Saivite philosopher. 5. The Saiva-Acaryas of Kasmira. 6. The Saiva Agama: preliminary remarks. 7. Saiva art and architecture. 8. Saiva art and architecture under Ikshvaku rulers. 9. Saiva Nagarjuna. 10. Saiva Nayanmars. 11. Saiva philosophy as gleaned from Appar’s Tevaram. 12. The Saiva schools. 13. Saiva sects of the far south.

Vol. 25. Siva: Preface. 1. Saiva sects as found in the Skanda Purana. 2. Saiva Siddhanta and Vedanta. 3. Saivism in art. 4. Saivism: the Dravidian religion. 5. Saivism in the epic age. 6. Saivism in Ganga dynasty. 7. The Saivism of Kashmir. 8. Saivism in Kongoda under the Sailodbhavas (c. A.D. 600-750). 9. Saivism in Orissa. 10. Saivism in Padma Purana. 11. Saivism and Pasupat cult: philosophical outline. 12. Saivism in the Patala Khanda of the Padma-Purana. 13. Saivism as reflected in the Mahabharata. 14. Saivism in Sangam age. 15. Saivism in South Kosala.

Vol. 26. Siva: Preface. 1. Saivism and Tamil literature. 2. Saivism under Satavahana dynasty. 3. Saivism versus Buddhism: ascendancy of the Bhaumakaras. 4. The Saivite Sailodbhavas towards Vaisnavism. 5. Saivite schools of thought. 6. Sakti Cakra: the wheel of energies. 7. Saktipata. 8. The Saktipata principle of Saivism. 9. Sambhavopaya. 10. Samnyasis or Saiva ascetics. 11. The Sarana literature. 12. The Sarana philosophy.

Vol. 27. Siva: Preface. 1. The Sarana path of discipline. 2. Savitri and Satyavan. 3. Scriptural works on Kashmiri Saivism. 4. Sculptures of Somanatha Temple. 5. The secret knowledge of Kundalini. 6. Self-manifestation of Siva as cosmic Purusha. 7. The serpent and the sacrifice: an Anthill myth from Tiruvarur. 8. The Saiva-Vaisava synthesis in Maharashtrian saints. 9. Significance of Saivite Tantric tradition. 10. Siva-Pasupati in the Indus civilization. 11. Siva Temple at Gudimallam.

Vol. 28. Siva: Preface. 1. Siva in Spandapradipika (The lamp of Spanda). 2. Siva Bhakti.

Vol. 29. Siva: Preface. 1. Siva-Bhakti in the Mahabharata. 2. Siva in the evolutionary process of religion. 3. Siva: the Goddess, and the disguises of the Pandavas and Draupadi. 4. Siva-Linga from Gamri, Rajasthan. 5. The Sivanana Cittiyar. 6. Siva and Saivism in Puranic literature. 7. Socio-religious life of the Virasaiva woman. 8. Spanda: the universal activity of absolute consciousness. 9. Srisailam: a Shivaite pilgrimage centre, Andhra Pradesh. 10. Stambhesvari cult in Orissa. 11. The story of Siva’s sacred games: a text and its contexts. 12. Swami Muktananda Paramahansa’s teaching of Saivism. 13. The theology of Aghorasiva.

Vol. 30. Siva: Preface. 1. Tamil Saivite saints. 2. The Tattvas in Saivism. 3. Temple, priests and ritual. 4. Theistic absolutism and spiritual realism. 5. Universal manifestation and universal consciousness. 6. The Unmaivilakkam. 7. The Vilasa principles of neo-Saivism. 8. Virasaiva philosophy and doctrine. 9. Virasaiva rites. 10. The Virasaivas and their context. 11. The Virasaiva writers. 12. Worship of Siva. 13. Worship of Siva’s temple. 14. Yoga in the Trika system.

"Encyclopaedia of Gods and Goddesses is a vast collection and compilation of authoritative information on Gods and Goddesses worshipped in all religions of the world. The concept of Gods and Goddesses have developed in different ways in different settings of society.

"In human religious experience, hierophanies (manifestations of sacred power) provide centres of meaning, order, worship, and ethics. Humans have always felt that real life is in close contact with sacred power as encountered in the form of divine beings. Ideas and experiences of these Goddesses and Gods thus are not so much intellectual reflections as existential concerns, revolving around the fundamental human question of how to live authentically in this world. Gods and Goddesses fit most aptly into what have been called polytheistic cultures, where the divine reality has not been unified into monistic or monotheistic systems.

"In looking at the history and morphology of divine beings, several considerations must be kept in mind. First of all, even though the Goddesses and Gods of a particular society necessarily reflect the values and traditions of that society, it is misleading to attempt to set up direct correspondences between the divine world and human society.

"Second there has been much discussion of the "original" function of certain Goddesses and Gods, in contrast to added or accumulated functions. Typologies of Gods and Goddesses must span both the historical-cultural data and the morphological possibilities of these divine beings. Some societies may have very few of the possible types, while other societies may have a very full representation of the various forms of divinities. It is useful to adopt two different perspectives on Gods and Goddesses: a cosmic typology and a social typology.

"A classification of Gods and Goddesses can be as follows:

Cosmic Gods and Goddesses

The Sky Gods and Goddesses

Meteorological Gods and Goddesses

Gods and Goddesses of social functions

Creators and guardians of society and order

Gods and Goddesses of protection and war

Gods and Goddesses of esoteric knowledge and magic.

"This continuing series is for the benefit of the students, teachers and researchers as well as laymen who wish to know about the origin and existence of all the Gods and Goddesses of world religions." (jacket)

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