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People of India : Kerala : Volume XXVII (3 Parts-Set)

Edited by T. Madhava Menon, Deepak Tyagi and B. Francis Kulirani, Affiliated East-West Press for Anthropological Survey of India, 2002, xlii, 1704 p, 3 Parts, ills, maps, ISBN : 8185938997, $88.00 (Includes free airmail shipping)

People of India : Kerala : Volume XXVII/edited by T. Madhava Menon, Deepak Tyagi and B. Francis Kulirani

Contents: Part 1 : Foreword. Introduction. The Communities: 1. Adikal. 2. Adiyan. 3. Agasa. 4. Ahmadiya. 5. Allar. 6. Andhra/Telugu. 7. Andhra Brahman. 8. Andi Pandaram. 9. Anglo-Indian. 10. Anthru Nair. 11. Aranadan. 12. Arayan. 13. Arayavathi. 14. Arunthathiyar. 15. Arya. 16. Ayyanavar. 17. Ayyanavar Christian. 18. Baira. 19. Bakuda. 20. Balija (Gajalu). 21. Ballal. 22. Bandari. 23. Bharathar Christian. 24. Bhillava. 25. Bohra Daudi. 26. Bovis Mogeyar. 27. Boyan/Naicken. 28. Bunt. 29. Chakkala. 30. Chakkiyar. 31. Chakkyar Nambiyar. 32. Chakravar/Sakravar. 33. Chaptegara. 34. Chayakkar. 35. Chengazhi Nambiar. 36. Cheruman. 37. Chingathanmar. 38. Cholanaickan. 39. Dakhani-Muslim. 40. Devadiga. 41. Devanga. 42. Domban. 43. Embrandiri. 44. Eravallan. 45. Ezhuthachan. 46. Ganika. 47. Gatti. 48. Gowda. 49. Gowda Saraswath Brahman. 50. Havyaka Brahman. 51. Hegde/Heggade. 52. Hill Pulaya - Karavazhi. 53. Hill Pulaya - Kurumba. 54. Holeya. 55. Ilayatu. 56. Irular. 57. Irupathinalu Mane Telugu Chetty. 58. Izhava/Thiya. 59. Izhava Christian. 60. Izhavathi.

Part II: 61. Jains. 62. Jews. 63. Jogi. 64. Kadaiyan. 65. Kadar. 66. Kaikolan. 67. Kakkalan. 68. Kalanady. 69. Kalladi. 70. Kallattu Kurup. 71. Kanakkan. 72. Kanikkar. 73. Kaniyan. 74. Kannadigas. 75. Karhada Brahman. 76. Karimpalan. 77. Kattunaickan. 78. Kavara. 79. Kavuthiyan. 80. Kidaran. 81. Knanaya Christian/Thekkumbhaga Samudhayam. 82. Kochu Velan/Mala Ulladan. 83. Kollan. 84. Kongu Vellala Gounder. 85. Kootan/Kudan. 86. Koraga. 87. Kota Brahman. 88. Koteyar. 89. Kshatriya. 90. Kudiya. 91. Kudubi. 92. Kumar Kshatriya. 93. Kunduvadiyan. 94. Kuravan Sidhanar. 95. Kuravan Sidhanar Christian. 96. Kurichian/Kurichechan. 97. Pathirikurichian. 98. Kurukkal. 99. Kurumba. 100. Kuruman -Mullu Kuruman. 101. Kuruman - Urali Kuruman. 102. Kusavan. 103. Latin Christian. 104. Madiga. 105. Maila. 106. Mala Malasar/Maha Malasar. 107. Mala Muthan. 108. Mala Panickar. 109. Malai Arayan/Mala Arayan. 110. Mala Arayar Christian. 111. Malai Pandaram/Mala Pandaram. 112. Malasar. 113. Malayalar. 114. Malayan – Kongu Malayan. 115. Malayan - Nattu Malayan. 116. Malayan. 117. Malekudiya/Melakudi. 118. Mannan (SC). 119. Mannan (ST). 120. Mappila. 121. Maran Nair. 122. Marar. 123. Marassari. 124. Marati. 125. Maravan. 126. Maruthuvar. 127. Mavilan. 128. Mogavirar/Mogaveera. 129. Moolya. 130. Moothan. 131. Mudugar. 132. Mukaya. 133. Mukhari/Mukkari. 134. Mukkuvan. 135. Mukkuvar Christian. 136. Mukkuvar Muslim. 137. Mundala. 138. Muppar. 139. Musari. 140. Muslim--Kutchi Memon. 141. Muslim--Ossan. 142. Muslim Shafi. 143. Muthuvan. 144. Muttatu. 145. Nadar. 146. Nadar Christian. 147. Nalkadaya/Nalkedaya. 148. Nambidi. 149. Nambuthiri. 150. Narsanna. 151. Nassuvan. 152. Navayat Muslim. 153. Nayadi. 154. Nayar. 155. Nullayan. 156. Otan.

Part III: 157. Padannan. 158. Palakkad Thandan. 159. Paliyan/Palliyan. 160. Pallan. 161. Pambada. 162. Panan. 163. Pandaran. 164. Pandithar. 165. Paniyan. 166. Paravan. 167. Parayan/Paraiyan. 168. Parayan/Sambavar Christian. 169. Parivara Bunt. 170. Pathiyan. 171. Pathinaickan. 172. Pattariya. 173. Perumkollan. 174. Pisharoti. 175. Poduval. 176. Pulayan/Cheramar. 177. Pulayan/Cheramar Christian. 178. Puliasari. 179. Pulluvan. 180. Pushpakan Unni. 181. Rajapura Saraswat/Rajapuri. 182. Reddiar. 183. Rowther. 184. Salia (Tamil). 185. Saliyan/Chaliyan. 186. Samagara. 187. Samantan. 188. Semman/Chemman. 189. Sikhs. 190. Sthanika Brahman. 191. Syrian Christian. 192. Tamil Brahman. 193. Tamils. 194. Tarakan. 195. Thachanad Muppan. 196. Thandan. 197. Thattan. 198. Thevar. 199. Tiyattunni. 200. Udyar. 201. Ulladan. 202. Uraly. 203. Urindavan. 204. Vadukan. 205. Valan. 206. Valinjiyar. 207. Valluvan. 208. Vaniyan. 209. Vanniyakula Kshatriya. 210. Variyar. 211. Veerasaivar. 212. Velakathala Nair. 213. Velan. 214. Chunnambu Velan. 215. Velar. 216. Vellala. 217. Veluthedathu Nair. 218. Vetan/Malai Vedan. 219. Vettuvan. 220. Vilkururp. 221. Vishavan. 222. Vishwakarma (Tamil). 223. Vokkaliga. 224. Wayanadan Chetty. 225. Wayanad Kadar. 226. Wayanadan Pathiyan. 227. Wayanadan Pulayan. 228. Yadava. Appendix. Glossary. Bibliography.Index.

"The Anthropological Survey of India launched the People of India project on October 2, 1985, to generate an anthropological profile of all communities of India, the impact on them of change and the development process, and the links that bring them together. As part of this all-India project the ethnographic survey of all communities of present-day Kerala (225) was taken up in collaboration with local scholars. The results of the survey were discussed at workshops held at Palakkad in May 1986, at Thiruvananthapuram in April 1988 and at regional workshops in Mysore during 1991-1992.

Kerala derives its identity from its ecology dominated by the coconut trees (nalikeram) or from the ancient kingdom of Chera. Its identity has evolved in history as it has assimilated the ethnic and cultural streams coming from across the seas and from the adjoining lands into its unique cultural mosaic which is defined inter alia by language, territory, dress, cuisine, fairs and festivals, elements of life-cycle ceremonies, folk religion and folklore. Two hundred and twenty five communities are spread over its variegated ecology and its distinct regions, consisting of several tribes, including some of the primitive groups, peasant groups, fisherfolk, etc. Its eclectic traditions include the many sects of Hinduism, followers of ancient Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Jainism and Sikhism.

While Malayalam is the dominant language, there are also as many as 15 other languages spoken by people, who possess a higher incidence of bilingualism. The view about the transition form patriliny to matriliny deserves to be re-examined, particularly as the three institutions avidly studied by social scientists, viz., the matrilineal system (marumakkathayam), matrilineal joint households (tarawad), and polyandry and hypergamy (sambandham), have been considered eroded by forces of modernisation and market. The nuclear family is preponderant. The equal status of women, no doubt linked with its matrilineal tradition, is reflected in the favourable sex ratio and higher incidence of female equigeniture. Other traits that stand out in Kerala are its settlement pattern and house types, higher incidence of vegetarianism with fish, consanguineous forms of marriage, junior sororate, and prevalence of child labour. What is known as the Kerala model of development projects the state’s excellent record in education, particularly female education, decline in infant mortality and significant population control. Poverty levels have fallen. The other side of the model is stagnation in economic growth, unemployment, the alienation of tribals’ land, and the highest incidence of suicide among the youth. Other trends include influx of money from people of Kerala employed in West Asia, rapid urbanisation, diversification of the economy, organisation of the people for promotion of education and science, protection of the environment, planning from below and decentralisation." (jacket)

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