Contents: Foreword. Introduction. I. Ontology : the nature of reality: 1. A preliminary statement of an important Vedantic and Buddhistic objection against the Jaina view of reality, leading to the formulation of five types of approach to the problem of reality. 2. A study in contrasts. 3. The schools of philosophy in which identity subordinates difference. 4. The schools of philosophy in which difference subordinates identity. 5. The Jaina philosophy of identity in difference in which identity is co-ordinate with difference. 6. The externalistic doctrine of identity in difference (Ubhyavada) versus the doctrine of a unique and integral synthesis of identity-in-difference (Jatyantaravada). 7. Is relation an entity, or a mental construction, or a structural manifestation of identity-in-difference in reality? 8. A consideration of two controversies concerning Dravya and Guna (and/or Paryaya) with a view to clarifying the nature of both. II. Epistemology : a Anekantavada, the theory of manifoldness, the most consistent theory of realism; B. Nayavada, the theory of standpoints; C. Syadvada, or saptabhangi, the dialectic of conditional or sevenfold predication: 9. Anekantavada or the theory of manifoldness. 10. Nayavada or the theory of standpoints. 11. Syadvada or the dialectic of conditional predication. Conclusion. Bibliography. Index.
"The book is divided into two parts (bound in one volume). Part I is related to the nature of reality. The author formulates five types of approach to the problem of reality. He discovers flaws in the following four: i. the philosophy of identity, ii. that of difference, iii. of identity in difference in which identity predominates and iv. of identity in difference in which difference predominates. The only approach which he finds flawless is the Jaina view, namely of identity in difference in which identity is co-ordinate with difference. The author proceeds to discuss two aspects of reality, viz. the relational structure and causal efficiency and shows that the two can exist and function only within the framework of a co-ordinate identity in difference, accepted by the Jaina thinkers. This is followed by a search for the meaning and content of the notion of substance and an attempt is made to distinguish between the concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes.
Part 2 presents an analytical account of the methods of knowledge recognized by the Jaina thinkers under the characteristic doctrines of standpoints and of conditional predication (Nayavada and Syadvada) preceded by an investigation into the nature and the logical evolution of the theory of manifoldness (Anekantavada)." (jacket)