Contents: Part I: I. Gautama: Preface. Introduction. II. Vatsyayana: Preface. 1. Vatsyayana's definition of Pramana. 2. Objects of knowledge (Prameya). 3. Quibble (chala). 4. Different types of pramana. 5. Science of reasoning. 6. Fallacy (Hetvabhasa). 7. Doubt (Samsaya). 8. List of prameyas. 9. Inference of the self. 10. Highest good. 11. Defect (dosa). 12. Rebirth. 13. Fruition (phala). 14. Pain (Duhkha). 15. Authority of the Vedas. 16. Final release (Apavarga). 17. God. III. Uddyotakara: Preface. 1. Uddyotakara's comment on Vatsyayana's introduction. 2. Nature and objects of cognition. 3. Doubt, propose, example and tenets. 4. Argument (Tarka). 5. Ascertainment (Nirnaya). 6. Discussion (Vada). 7. Ways of losing an argument. 8. Nature of perception. 9. Criticism of different theories of perception. 10. Reasoning. 11. Criticism of different theories of inference. 12. Five members of a Syllogism. 13. Nature of analogy (upamana). 14. Testimony (sabda). 15. Conception of the highest good. 16. Nature of the soul (Atman). 17. Eternality of self and its killing. 18. Nature of the body (sarira). 19. Nature of sense organs (Indriyas). 20. Examination of other theories. 21. Nature of activity, defects rebirth, fruition and pain. 22. A final release. God (Isvara). Part II: General preface to the part two: I. Jayanta Bhatta: Preface. Introduction. 1. Merit and demerit, heaven and hell are only knowable from scriptures. 2. Justification of the study of the logic of Gautama. 3. Definitions of pramana. 4. The word 'non-erroneous'. 5. The Buddhists' definition of determinate perception. 6. Cognition of transcendental perception. 7. Theories of error. 8. Inference. 9. Analogy (upamana). 10. Sabda. 11. The justification of the authority of speech. 12. Eternality of sound. 13. Meaning of words and sentences. 14. Meaning of the Vedas. 15. Inefficacy of the study of grammar. 16. The objects of knowledge. 17. Liberation. 18. Existence of God. II. Bhasarvajna: Preface. 1. Nyayasara. 2. Nyaya-Bhusana. 3. Tarkadipika-Jayasimha Suri. 4. Padapancika-Vasudeva Suri. III. Vacaspati Misra: Preface. Introduction. 1. Subject matter and purpose. 2. Objects of knowledge. 3. The whole and the parts. 4. Sound is non-eternal. 5. Instruments of knowledge. 6. The nature of a Syllogism. 7. Doubt. 8. Fallacies of the Hetu. 9. Causation. 10. Falsity of everything refuted. 11. Destruction and production. 12. The self is not the sense organ. 13. The concept of God. IV. Udayana: Preface. Introduction. 1. Sesa Sarangadhara, Nyayamuktavali, a commentary on Udayana's Laksanavali. 2. Narayana Acarya, Dipika, a commentary on Udayana's Atmatattvaviveka. 3. Samkara Misra, Kalpalata, a commentary on Udayana's Atmatattvaviveka. 4. Raghunatha Siromani, Didhiti, a commentary on Udayana's Atmatattvaviveka. 5. Vardhamana, Prakasa, a commentary on Udayana's Nyaya-kusumanjali. 6. Rucidatta Misra, Makaranda, a supercommentary on Vardhamana's commentary. 7. Samkara Misra, Amoda, a commentary on Udayana's Nyaya-kusumanjali. 8. Vardhamana, Prakasa, a commentary on Udayana's Nyayaparisista. V. Varadaraja: Preface. 1. Vyakhya-Cinnambhatta. 2. Niskantika-Mallinatha. VI. Samkara Misra: 1. Vadivonada. 2. Bhedaratna. Part III: General preface to part three: I. Kesava Misra: Preface. II. Manikantha Misra and Sasadhara: 1. Manikantha. 2. Sasadhara. III. Gangesa: 1. Perception. 2. Inference. 3. Upamana. IV. Raghunatha Siromani: Preface. 1. Padarthatattvanirupanam. 2. Akhyatavada. 3. Didhiti on Gangesa's Tattvacintamani. 4. Theory of negation. 5. Absence limited by a property whose Loci are different from its counterpositive. V. Later navya-nyaya theory: 1. General theory. 2. The import of sentences. 3. Meaning of sentences. 4. Nature of pervasion. 5. A comparative study of Jagadisa and Mathuranatha. 6. Jagadisa's theory of sentence meaning. 7. Some further problems of the word-meaning. Index.
"The volumes of the Project on the History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization aim at discovering the main aspects of India's heritage and present them in an interrelated way. These volumes, in spite of their unitary look, recognize the difference between the areas of material civilization and those of ideational culture. The project is not being executed by a single group of thinkers and writers who are methodologically uniform or ideologically identical in their commitments. In fact contributions are made by different scholars with different ideological persuasions and methodological approaches. The project is marked by what may be called 'methodological pluralism'. In spite of its primary historical character, this project, both in its conceptualization and execution, has been shaped by many scholars drawn from different disciplines. It is for the first time that an endeavour of such a unique and comprehensive character has been undertaken to study critically a major world civilization like India.
In his learned book, Development of Nyaya Philosophy and Its Social Context Professor Sibajiban Bhattacharyya has traced the history of Nyaya philosophy with reference to its social contexts. That this system of philosophy, darsana, is not unnecessarily abstract but has taken cognizance of its theoretical ancestry as well as practical circumstances will be evident to the perceptive reader. As a branch of knowledge, vidya, philosophy as darsana was known in India for a long time. In Kautilya's Arthasastra the recognized branches of knowledge are four: (i) the three Vedas (trayi), (ii) trade and commerce (varta); (iii) law and order (dandaniti) and (iv) anvisiki, which according to Kautilya means Sankhya, Yoga and Lokayata. However, later on anvisiki stood for logic and metaphysic. In the history of Indian philosophy the first use of the term darsana has been attributed to Haribhadrasuri, the Jaina philosopher and author of the Sad darsana samuccaya. Nearly 400 years after Haribhadrasuri the term darsana in the current sense was used by Sankaracarya in his commentary on the Brahmasutra. In this comprehensive book Professor Bhattacharyya has dealt with the works of most of the famous nyaya thinkers like Gautama, Vatsyayana, Jayanta Bhatta, Bhasarvajna, Udayana, Vardhamana and various other writers down the centuries. This scholarly book from the pen of Bhattacharyya is highly readable and informative. It is hoped that the book will be profitably used by researchers, scholars and the general reading public." (jacket)