Contents: Preface. I. Principles of Industrial Enzyme Production and Utilisation: 1. Basic concepts of enzymes. 2. General characteristics of enzymes. 3. Environmental effects on enzyme activity. 4. Modern methods of enzyme expression and design. 5. Fermentation process design. 6. Extraction and purification of enzymes. II. Types of enzymes/classification of enzyme: 7. Carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes. 8. Proteases. 9. Lipases. 10. Oxidoreductases. II. Application of enzymes in industry: 11. Milling and baking. 12. Starches, sugars and syrups. 13. Dairy products. 14. Pectic enzymes in fruit and vegetable juice manufacture. 15. Enzymes associated with savoury flavour enhancement. 16. Wine. 17. Brewing. 18. Fish processing and meat industry. 19. Textiles and laundry detergents. 20. Pulp and paper. 21. Tanning industry. 22. Clinical analysis. 23. Enzymes in organic synthesis. 24. Enzymes and bioremediation. IV. Instrumental techniques used in enzyme analysis: 25. Instrumental techniques in enzymatic analysis. 26. Enzyme thermistors for food analysis. 27. Enzyme electrodes for food analysis. V. Special topics: 28. Legal considerations. 29. Economic considerations for the use of technical enzymes. 30. Patenting biotechnology inventions. References. Index.
"Enzymes are biomolecules that catalyse chemical reactions. However, the enzymes do not undergo permanent changes and so remain unchanged at the end of the reaction. They can only alter the rate of reaction but not the position of the equilibrium.
Most chemical catalysts catalyse a wide range of reactions. They are not usually very selective. In contrast, enzymes are usually highly selective, catalysing specific reactions only. This specificity is due to the shapes of the enzyme molecules. Nearly all known enzymes are proteins. Enzymes are needed almost in all biological processes to occur at significant rates in a cell.
Modern biotechniques are utilized to improve microbial production strains to increase enzyme yields and to make minor amino acid changes that improve the functionality of the enzyme.
Enzymes are involved in the formation of starch, gluten, hemicelluloses, and lipids during ripening and are the key to dough fermentation and bread making, since they degrade these polymers. Enzymes are also used in various other industries such as wine and brewing, fish and meat processing, textiles and laundry detergents, pulp and paper and tanning. Enzymes play significant role in clinical analysis, organic synthesis and bioremediation. Use of enzymes in diagnosis of disease is one of the important benefits derived from the intensive research in biochemistry. Enzymes have provided the basis for the field of clinical chemistry.
This textbook Enzymes Biotechnology makes an essential reading for all students and teachers of bioengineering, environment and life sciences and biotechnology. Researchers in analytical and instrumental techniques, chemists and industrialists will also find it highly useful and informative both as a text and a reference."