A. Foreword B. Preface C. Acknowledgements 1. Introduction 2. Origin, Classification, Nomenclature and Cultivars 3. Climate and Soil 4. Propagation and Rootstocks 5. Special Systems of Training and Pruning 6. Orchard Soil Management and Irrigation 7. Mineral Nutrition 8. Harvesting, Storage and Marketing 9. Insect Pests and Diseases and their Management 10. Special Problems of Fruit Production 11. Economics of Temperate Fruits Production D. Subject Index
Temperate fruits can play an important role in boosting the economy of the farmers of the hilly areas. The production per unit area of these fruit-crops is very low as compared to the international standards. And one of the reasons for their low production is the lack of the scientific knowledge for growing them.
Although a large number of foreign books on temperate fruits are available but there are a very few books on this subject relating to Indian conditions. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research has taken a right step in undertaking the publication of a university-level textbook for post-graduate students.
With the establishment of the University of Horticulture and Forestry in the country, the need for such a publication had become all the more important.
The present book deals with the various aspects of production, including pest management, post-harvest management and marketing, and last but not the least, on the economics of the production.
The Chapter 2 deals with the origin, classification and nomenclature of temperate fruits, which is normally dealt in the books of Systematic Pomology. Such information will be of great value to post-graduate students of temperate-zone pomology. This chapter also includes information on commercial and new cultivars of apple, pear, cherry, peach, plum, apricot, almond, walnut, chestnut, peacanut, pistachio-nut, persimmon and olive.
The Chapter 3 on climate and soil besides discussing about climatic and soil requirements of different fruits, discusses relationships between climatic factors and growth, flowering, yield, fruit quality and occurrence of insect pests and diseases. The effects of drought and remedial measures have also been discussed. This is of special significance for our rainfed temperate fruit-orchards.
The Chapter 4 on rootstocks also deals with physiology of dwarfing and graft incompatibility. It also gives information about the special methods of propagation like mist system for rooting of cuttings, double working by budding, nurse-seed grafting, micropropagation, and about the viruses transmitted through scions and rootstocks.
The Chapter 5 describes special systems of training and pruning, suited for high-density plantings on clonal rootstocks.
Chapter 6 deals with different systems of orchard and soil management and special systems of irrigation like drip and sprinkler systems. Chapter 7 deals with mineral nutrition with special reference to role of essential macronutrients and micronutrients and their deficiency symptoms including curative measures.
The role of soil and foliar analyses in predicting nutrient requirements has also been discussed in details. The general fertilizer recommendations for important fruit-crops are also given.
The Chapter 8 on harvesting, storage and marketing deals with maturity standards, picking and different methods of storage. The problems of marketing and remedial measures are also discussed.
The Chapter 9 on insect-pests and diseases gives information on the type of damages caused and control measures against insect-pests and diseases of economic importance.
The Chapter 10 deals with special problems of fruit production like unfruitfulness, alternate bearing", control of pre-harvest fruit drop, fruit-colour development, rodents and bird damage. The possible control measures have also been suggested.
The Chapter 11 includes economics of fruit production with particular reference to cost of establishment, production and net returns in apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot and almond.
It is hoped that the book will be of use to teachers, researchers, postgraduate students and orchardists of temperate regions of the country.